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Most of Britain's available forces in the Near East were concentrated on crushing the tribal uprisings in the Iraq , while France and Italy were also fighting the Turkish revolutionaries near Syria and Italian controlled Antalya. Karabekir was informed by the Government of the Grand National Assembly regarding the Boris Legran agreement and ordered to resolve the Kars issue.

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The same day the agreement between Armenia and Soviet Russia was signed, Karabekir moved his forces toward Kars. On October 24, Karabekir's forces launched a new, massive campaign against Kars.

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On November 13, Georgia broke its neutrality. It had concluded an agreement with Armenia to invade the disputed region of Lori , which was established as a Neutral Zone the Shulavera Condominium between the two nations in early The Turks, headquartered in Alexandropol, presented the Armenians with an ultimatum which they were forced to accept. They followed it with a more radical demand which threatened the existence of Armenia as a viable entity.

The Armenians at first rejected this demand, but when Karabekir's forces continued to advance, they had little choice but to capitulate. These include mass rape and massacres with tens of thousands of civilians executed. Atrocities occurred in Kars and Alexandropol. As the terms of defeat were being negotiated between Karabekir and Armenian Foreign Minister Alexander Khatisyan , Joseph Stalin , on the command of Vladimir Lenin , ordered Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze to enter Armenia from Azerbaijan in order to establish a new pro- Bolshevik government in the country.

After the capture of Yerevan and Echmiadzin by Bolshevik forces on 2 December , the Armenian government signed the Treaty of Alexandropol on 3 December , though it no longer existed as a legal entity. The Armenian Parliament never ratified the treaty, as the Soviet invasion took place at the same time and the communists took over the country.

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In late November , there was a Soviet-backed communist uprising in Armenia. The second Soviet-Armenian war lasted a week. Exhausted by the six years of wars and conflicts, the Armenian army and population were incapable of active resistance. The Soviets took control and Armenia ceased to exist as an independent state. Under the treaties, an autonomous Nakhchivan oblast was established under Azerbaijan 's protectorate. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable.

Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. The matter is actually clear. In a nation that wants to be democratic, there can be no subject that would be illegal to discuss. A free society does not tolerate a taboo. In the end Turkey will admit that in a great human tragedy occurred. Just as the Kurdish reality is accepted [in Turkey] today despite the obstinacy and cries like "there are no Kurds, they are mountain-dwelling Turks", the reality of will too be accepted.

From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide

The most important thing is that they must not be put on the agenda by foreign pressures and not come with a high price tag. Unfortunately, it is beyond debate that the events of qualify as genocide according to the UN definitions. Anyone involved in the issue with even a rough knowledge of the documents in the Ottoman, German, Austrian, Armenian, and British archives knows that the facts in these archives do not contradict, but on the contrary, support each other.

And the underlying point is that the Ottoman subject Armenians were systematically murdered and left to die. The claims that the events of does not constitute genocide cannot be addressed one by one. Here, I will suffice to say that the thesis put forward by some of our writers that a racist ideology is needed to call a mass murder a genocide can not be taken seriously. In reality, the question has several dimentions that go beyond the dilemma whether to call it genocide or not.

Here, I would like to underline and bring forth one of these points I see everyone has forgotten about. The fact that what occurred in was a mass murder is accepted by anyone who lived at that time -- even by the leaders of the War of Independence. It may come as a surprise, but this is the truth.

The Armenian Genocide: The Search for Truth and the Historical Context -

Of course the word genocide is quite new. It came into existence after World War II. During the [Turkish] War of Independence words like massacre, mass murder, and deportation were used. There were tens of speeches in which Mustafa Kemal described what was done to the Armenians as "cowardly [act]" and "savagery" and qualified them as massacre. In the same period, in an interview with the US Radio newspaper he says "we have no expansionist plans In a telegram he sent to Kazim Karabekir in May , he asks Karabekir to avoid any undertaking that may be construed as another Armenian massacre.

In those years whether the events of were a genocide was not even a topic of debate.

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In fact, it was being openly stated that the guilty would be punished. Moreover, he adds that he saw this punishment would be "more appropriate and beneficial to show it to friend and foe alike if it was actually put into practise rather than remaining as publicity on paper, as the latter case would cause many questions to be raised". The issue of trials for those guilty of massacre were taken up in Amasya negotiations. During the discussions, five protocols, three open and signed, and two secret and unsigned were agreed upon.

In the first protocole from October 21, "the reawakening of the Ittihadism and the Ittihadist spirit in the country and even the display of some of its symbols is politically harmful The legal punishment of the guilty in connection with the deportations is necessary [both] judicially and politically". The third protocol is about the upcoming general elections. An agreement was reached on the necessity of barring the Ittihadists wanted for the Armenian massacres. For that purpose, the Anatolian movement [Congress of Representatives] reserved the right to interfere in the elections.

It is possible to present pages and pages of [similar] examples.

From Empire to Republic : Taner Akcam :

Here is what I want to get across: the fact that the events of were a mass killing was never a matter of dispute. The main issue of the time was the desire [by the Allies] to divvy up Anatolia on the pretext of punishing the Turks and using the events of as a justification. What Kemal and his friends were proposing was the punishment of the guilty but without the division of Anatolia. Today, instead of the hysterical cries, if we assumed an attitude as Mustafa Kemal did regarding the subject, we would have made great headway.

Ermeni Soykirimi olmamistir. Dikkat edilirse, bu tabulardan bir tek Ermeni soykirimi meselesi kalmisti. Avrupa Parlamentosunun yilinda almis oldugu bir karar var. Karabekir, Istiklal Harbimiz, s.

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He has come under attack as a result. He was charged under Article of Turkey's penal code, which has been used frequently against journalists, academics, and writers, and which Amnesty International says "poses a direct threat to the fundamental right to freedom of expression.

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There is something I have difficulty understanding. How is it that you who have made such important inroads into this democracy can insist on continuing the 95 years of denialist policies when it comes to the subject of ? The Homogenizing and Ethnic Cleansing of Anatolia. The Genocide and Turkey. Some Theoretical Thoughts on the Obstacles. Select Bibliography.